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Magazine References

Jan – Feb 2023

Pp 6-7 Cross-body talk: The brain’s effect on the body during exercise

  1. Krogh-Severinsen C, Klarlund-Pedersen B (2020), Muscle-organ cross talk: The emerging roles of myokines, Endocr Rev., 41(4): 594-609 doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnaa016.
  2. Winiarz E (2019), Endorphins, endocannabinoids and runner’s high, The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences, 13(1).
Further Reading
  1. Yang T et al (2020), The role of BDNF on neural plasticity in depression, Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience,14: 82.
  2. Delezie J, Handschin C (2018), Endocrine crosstalk between skeletal muscle and the brain, Frontiers in Neurology, 9: 698.
  3. Kim S et al (2019), Roles of myokines in exercise-induced improvement of neuropsychiatric function, European Journal of Physiology, 471: 491-505.

Pp 8-11 Men vs women: Nutrition

  1. Cowley et al (2021) “Invisible Sportswomen”: The Sex Data Gap in Sport and Exercise Science Research, Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 29(2): 1-6.
  2. Holtzman B & Ackerman K (2021), Recommendations and nutritional considerations for female athletes: Health and performance, Sports Medicine.
  3. Tarnopolsky MA (2003), Females and males: should nutritional recommendations be gender specific?
  4. Helm et al (2021), Impact of nutrition-based interventions on athletic performance during menstrual cycle phases: a review, Int Environ Res Public Health, 18(12): 6,294.
  5. Leblanc et al (2015), Differences between men and women in dietary intakes and metabolic profile in response to a 12-week nutritional intervention promoting the Mediterranean diet, Journal of Nutritional Science.
  6. Gould L et al (2022), Metabolic effects of menopause: a cross-sectional characterization of body composition and exercise metabolism, Menopause, 29(4): 377-89.
  7. Morehen J et al (2022), Energy expenditure of Female International Standard Soccer Players: A doubly Labelled Water Investigation, Med Sci Sports Exerc., 54(5): 769-79.
  8. Slater et al (2016), Female Recreational Exercisers at risk for low energy availability, J Sport Nut Exerc Metab., 26(5): 421-27.
  9. Ackerman et al (2019), Low energy availability surrogates correlate with health and performance consequences of Relative Energy Deficiency, Sport. Br J Sports Med, 53(10): 628-33.
  10. McKay et al (2022), Six days of Low carbohydrate, low energy availability alters the iron and immune response to exercise in elite athletes, Med Sci Sports Exercise, 54(3): 377-87.
  11. Roepstorff C, Steffensen CH, Madsen M et al (2002), Gender differences in substrate utilization during submaximal exercise in endurance-trained subjects, Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 282(2): E435-47.
  12. Hausswirth C. and Le Murr Y (2011), Physiological and nutritional aspects of post-exercise recovery: Specific recommendations for female athletes, Sports Med., 41(10): 861-82.
  13. Tarnopolsky MA (2008), Sex differences in exercise metabolism and the role of 17-beta estradiol, Med Sci Sports Exerc., 40(4): 648-54.
  14. Bakija et al (2021), The impact of type of dietary protein, animal versus vegetable in modifying cardiometabolic risk factors: a position paper from International Lipid expert Panel (ILEP), Clinical Nutrition, 40: 255-76.

Pp 12-13 The art of teaching mixed-level classes

  1. PowerPoint Presentation (, accessed 1 November 2022. 

Pp 14-17: Circuit training: Debunking the myths

  1. Falk Neto JH, Kennedy MD (2019), The multimodal nature of high-intensity functional training: Potential applications to improve sport performance, Sports, 7(2): 33.
  2. Klika B, Jordan C (2013), High-intensity circuit training using body weight: Maximum results with minimal investment, ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, 17(3): 8-13.
  3. Clayton BC, Tinius RA, Winchester LJ, Menke BR, Reece MC, Maples JM (2019), Physiological and perceptual responses to high-intensity circuit training using body weight as resistance: Are there sex-specific differences?, International Journal of Exercise Science, 12(4): 245.
  4. Heinrich KM, Patel PM, O’Neal JL, Heinrich BS (2014), High-intensity compared to moderate-intensity training for exercise initiation, enjoyment, adherence, and intentions: an intervention study, BMC Public Health, 14(1): 1-6.
  5. Fisher J, Sales A, Carlson L, Steele J (2017), A comparison of the motivational factors between CrossFit participants and other resistance exercise modalities: a pilot study, J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 57(9): 1,227-34.
  6. Feito Y, Heinrich KM, Butcher SJ, Poston WS (2018), High-intensity functional training (HIFT): Definition and research implications for improved fitness, Sports, 6(3): 76.
  7. Haddock CK, Poston WS, Heinrich KM, Jahnke SA, Jitnarin N (2016), The benefits of high-intensity functional training fitness programs for military personnel, Military Medicine, 181(11-12): e1508-14.
  8. Cosgrove SJ, Crawford DA, Heinrich KM (2019), Multiple fitness improvements found after 6-months of high intensity functional training, Sports, 7(9): 203.
  9. Brisebois MF, Rigby BR, Nichols DL (2018), Physiological and fitness adaptations after eight weeks of high-intensity functional training in physically inactive adults, Sports, 6(4): 146.
  10. Menz V, Marterer N, Amin SB, Faulhaber M, Hansen AB, Lawley JS (2019), Functional vs. Running low-volume high-intensity interval training: Effects on vo2max and muscular endurance, Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 18(3): 497.
  11. Lu Y, Wiltshire HD, Baker JS, Wang Q (2021), The effects of running compared with functional high-intensity interval training on body composition and aerobic fitness in female university students, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(21): 11,312.
  12. Crawford DA, Drake NB, Carper MJ, DeBlauw J, Heinrich KM (2018), Are changes in physical work capacity induced by high-intensity functional training related to changes in associated physiologic measures?, Sports, 6(2): 26.
  13. Rivas-Campo Y, García-Garro PA, Aibar-Almazán A, Martínez-Amat A, Vega-Ávila GC, Afanador-Restrepo DF, León-Morillas F, Hita-Contreras F (2022), The effects of high-intensity functional training on cognition in older adults with cognitive impairment: a systematic review. In Healthcare, 10(4): 670. MDPI.
  14. Baxter SC. The effects of a 20-week HIFT circuit on cardiorespiratory fitness, functional fitness, muscle strength and body composition in recreationally active breast cancer survivors (Doctoral dissertation, University of Otago).
  15. Kraemer WJ, Newton RU (2000), Training for muscular power, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America,  11(2): 341-68.
  16. Peterson MD, Rhea MR, Alvar BA (2005), Applications of the dose-response for muscular strength development: a review of meta-analytic efficacy and reliability for designing training prescription, The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 19(4): 950-8.
  17. Jeffreys I, Moody J, editors (2021), Strength and Conditioning for Sports Performance, Routledge.
  18. Suchomel TJ, Nimphius S, Stone MH (2016), The importance of muscular strength in athletic performance, Sports Medicine, 46(10): 1,419-49.
  19. Haff GG and Triplett NT eds. (2015), Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, 4th edition, Human Kinetics.
  20. Dominguez R, Maté-Muñoz JL, Serra-Paya N and Garnacho-Castaño MV (2018), Lactate threshold as a measure of aerobic metabolism in resistance exercise, International Journal of Sports Medicine39(03): 163-172.

Pp 18-21 Training high: Scaling the heights of altitude training

  1. Ho JY, Kuo TY, Liu KL, Dong XY & Tung K (2014), Combining normobaric hypoxia with short-term resistance training has no additive beneficial effect on muscular performance and body composition, The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(4): 935-941.

2. Ramos-Campo DJ, Scott B, Alcaraz PE, Rubio-Arias JA (2018), The efficacy of resistance training in hypoxia to enhance strength and muscle growth: a systematic review and meta-analysis, European Journal of Sport Science, 18(1), 92-103.

3. Pedlar C, Whyte G, Kreindler J, Hardman S & Levine B (2011), The BASES Expert statement on Human Performance in hypoxia Inducing Environments: Natural and Simulated Altitude. BASES expert statement.

4. WADA WORLD ANTI-DOPING CODE International standard prohibited list 2023, October 2022,, accessed 6 December 2022.    

5. Okazaki K, Stray-Gundersen J, Chapman RF, Levine BD (2019), Iron insufficiency diminishes the erythropoietic response to moderate altitude exposure, Journal of Applied Physiology, 127(6): 1,569-78.

6. Jung WS, Kim SW, Kim JW, Park HY (2021), Resistance Training in Hypoxia as a New Therapeutic Modality for Sarcopenia-A Narrative Review, Life (Basel), 11(2): 106. doi: 10.3390/life11020106. PMID: 33573198; PMCID: PMC7912455

7. Sperlich B, Achtzehn S, de Marées M, von Papen H, Mester J (2016), Load management in elite German distance runners during 3-weeks of high-altitude training, Physiol Rep., 4(12): e12845. doi: 10.14814/phy2.12845. PMID: 27356568; PMCID: PMC4926021.

8. Mujika I, Sharma AP, Stellingwerff T (2019), Contemporary periodization of altitude training for elite endurance athletes: a narrative review, Sports Medicine, 49(11): 1,651-69.

9. Subudhi AW, Bourdillon N, Bucher J, Davis C, Elliott JE, Eutermoster M et al (2014), AltitudeOmics: the integrative physiology of human acclimatization to hypobaric hypoxia and its retention upon reascent, PLoS One, 9(3): e92191.

Pp 26-29 The need for strength and power training within endurance running

  1. Scheerder J, Breedveld K, Borgers J (2015), Who is doing a run with the running boom?, Running across Europe (pp. 1-27), Palgrave Macmillan, London. 
  2. Lee DC, Pate RR, Lavie CJ, Sui X, Church TS, Blair SN (2014), Leisure-time running reduces all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 64(5): 472-81.
  3. Chakravarty EF, Hubert HB, Lingala VB, Fries JF (2008), Reduced disability and mortality among aging runners: a 21-year longitudinal study, Archives of Internal Medicine, 168(15): 1,638-46.
  4. Wang N, Zhang X, Xiang YB, Li H, Yang G, Gao J, Zheng W, Shu XO (2013), Associations of Tai Chi, walking, and jogging with mortality in Chinese men, American Journal of Epidemiology, 178(5): 791-6.
  5. Schnohr P, Marott JL, Lange P, Jensen GB (2013), Longevity in male and female joggers: the Copenhagen City Heart Study, American Journal of Epidemiology, 177(7): 683-9.
  6. van Gent RN, Siem D, van Middelkoop M, van Os AG, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Koes BW (2007), Incidence and determinants of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners: a systematic review, Br J Sports Med., 41: 469-80.
  7. Linton L, Valentin S. Running with injury: A study of UK novice and recreational runners and factors associated with running related injury, Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2018 21(12): 1,221-5.
  8. Komi PV (1990), Relevance of in vivo force measurements to human biomechanics, Journal of Biomechanics, 23: 23-34.
  9. Trowell D, Vicenzino B, Saunders N, Fox A, Bonacci J (2020), Effect of strength training on biomechanical and neuromuscular variables in distance runners: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Sports Medicine, 50(1): 133-50.
  10. Beattie K, Kenny IC, Lyons M, Carson BP (2014), The effect of strength training on performance in endurance athletes, Sports Medicine, 44(6): 845-65.
  11. Johnston RE, Quinn TJ, Kertzer R, Vroman NB (1997), Strength training in female distance runners: impact on running economy, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 11(4): 224-9.
  12. Taipale RS, Mikkola J, Nummela A, Vesterinen V, Capostagno B, Walker S, Gitonga D, Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K (2010), Strength training in endurance runners, International Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(07): 468-76.
  13. Paavolainen LM, Nummela AT, Rusko HK (1999), Neuromuscular characteristics and muscle power as determinants of 5-km running performance, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(1): 124-30.
  14. Storen O, Helgerud JA, Stoa EM, Hoff JA (2008), Maximal strength training improves running economy in distance runners, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40(6): 1,087.
  15. Zaras N, Stasinaki AN, Spiliopoulou P, Arnaoutis G, Hadjicharalambous M, Terzis G (2020), Rate of force development, muscle architecture, and performance in elite weightlifters, International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 16(2): 216-23.
  16. Zaras ND, Stasinaki AN, Methenitis SK, Krase AA, Karampatsos GP, Georgiadis GV, Spengos KM, Terzis GD (2016), Rate of force development, muscle architecture, and performance in young competitive track and field throwers, The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 30(1): 81-92.
  17. Weakley JJ, Till K, Read DB, Leduc C, Roe GA, Phibbs PJ, Darrall-Jones J, Jones B (2021), Jump training in rugby union players: barbell or hexagonal bar?, The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 35(3): 754-61.
  18. Oranchuk DJ, Robinson TL, Switaj ZJ, Drinkwater EJ (2019), Comparison of the hang high pull and loaded jump squat for the development of vertical jump and isometric force-time characteristics, The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 33(1): 17-24.
  19. Mikkola J, Rusko H, Nummela A, Pollari T, Häkkinen K (2007), Concurrent endurance and explosive type strength training improves neuromuscular and anaerobic characteristics in young distance runners, International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(07): 602-11.
  20. Spurrs RW, Murphy AJ, Watsford ML (2003), The effect of plyometric training on distance running performance, European Journal of Applied Physiology, 89(1): 1-7.
  21. Ramírez-Campillo R, Álvarez C, Henríquez-Olguín C, Baez EB, Martínez C, Andrade DC, Izquierdo M (2014), Effects of plyometric training on endurance and explosive strength performance in competitive middle-and long-distance runners, The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(1): 97-104.   
  22. Van Middelkoop M, Kolkman J, Van Ochten J, Bierma‐Zeinstra SM, Koes BW (2008), Risk factors for lower extremity injuries among male marathon runners, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 18(6): 691-7.
  23. Shaikh Z, Perry M, Morrissey D, Ahmad M, Del Buono A, Maffulli N (2012), Achilles tendinopathy in club runners, International Journal of Sports Medicine, 33(05): 390-4.
  24. Messier SP, Davis SE, Curl WW, Lowery RB, Pack RJ (1991), Etiologic factors associated with patellofemoral pain in runners, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 23(9): 1,008-15.
  25. Taunton JE, Ryan MB, Clement DB, McKenzie DC, Lloyd-Smith DR, Zumbo BD (2002), A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(2): 95-101.
  26. Lorimer AV, Hume PA (2014), Achilles tendon injury risk factors associated with running, Sports Medicine, 44(10): 1,459-72.
  27. Kibler WB, Goldberg C, Chandler TJ (1991), Functional biomechanical deficits in running athletes with plantar fasciitis, The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 19(1): 66-71.
  28. Irving DB, Cook JL, Young MA, Menz HB (2007), Obesity and pronated foot type may increase the risk of chronic plantar heel pain: a matched case-control study, BMC musculoskeletal disorders, 8(1): 1-8.
  29. Riddle DL, Pulisic M, Pidcoe P, Johnson RE (2003), Risk factors for plantar fasciitis: a matched case-control study, JBJS, 85(5): 872-7.
  30. Cornwall MW (2000), Common pathomechanics of the foot, Athletic Therapy Today, 5(1): 10-6.
  31. McMillan AM, Landorf KB, Barrett JT, Menz HB, Bird AR (2009), Diagnostic imaging for chronic plantar heel pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 2(1): 1-1.
  32. Lemont H, Ammirati KM, Usen N (2003), Plantar fasciitis: a degenerative process (fasciosis) without inflammation, Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 93(3): 234-7.

Pp 30-34 Muscle clocks

  1. Murphy BA et al (2014), Exercise influences circadian gene expression in equine skeletal muscle, Veterinary Journal,201(1): 39-45. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.03.028.
  2. Mayeuf-Louchart A, Staels B & Duez H (2015), Skeletal muscle functions around the clock, Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism,17(1, Suppl.): 39-46. doi:10.1111/dom.12517.
  3. Tanaka Y et al (2020), Effect of a single bout of exercise on clock gene expression in human leukocyte, Journal of Applied Physiology, 128(4): 847-54.
  4. Wolff G & Esser KA (2012), Scheduled exercise phase shifts the circadian clock in skeletal muscle, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise,44(9): 1,663-70. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318255cf4c
  5. Murphy BA, Wagner AL, McGlynn OF, Kharazyan F, Browne JA, Elliott JA (2014), Exercise influences circadian gene expression in equine skeletal muscle, Vet, 201: 39-45.
  6. Chaix A & Panda S (2019), Timing tweaks exercise, Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 15(8): 440-41.
  7. Gabriel BM & Zierath JR (2019), Circadian rhythms and exercise – re-setting the clock in metabolic disease, Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 15(4): 197-206.
  8. Sato S et al, Time of exercise specifies the impact on muscle metabolic pathways and systemic energy homeostasis, Cell Metabolism, 30(1): 92-110. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.03.013.
  9. Ashmore A (2020), Timing Resistance Training: Programming the Muscle Clock for Optimal Performance, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.